1. Each State Party may ensure that the activities of other States Parties concerning the exploration and use of the Moon are consistent with this Convention. To this end, all spacecraft, equipment, installations, stations and installations on the Moon shall be open to other States Parties. Such States Parties shall give reasonable notice of a scheduled visit to ensure appropriate consultations and shall take the utmost precautions to ensure safety and avoid any disruption to the normal operation of the facility to be visited. Under this article, any State Party may act on its own behalf or with the full or partial support of another State Party or in accordance with appropriate international procedures within the framework of the United Nations and in accordance with the Charter. 3. The States Parties agree that it is desirable to exchange scientific and other personnel during expeditions or installations on the Moon, to the extent possible and possible. 2. The stations shall be so constructed as not to impede the unhindered access to all areas of the Moon of personnel, vehicles and equipment of other States Parties carrying out activities on the Moon in accordance with this Convention or article I of the Treaty on Principles Applicable to the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space.
including the moon and other celestial bodies. Prof. von der Dunk: The first part of the answer is yes, they can come in – at least duly authorized representatives of the United States can come and check if Botswana is violating the requirements for the moon in terms of no military installation, no weapons, and things like that. On the other hand, Botswana has the right to take reasonable precautions and say, okay, you have to give us a few weeks to make sure everything is safe here. You can`t just walk in, but set aside the practical stuff again. The United States certainly cannot say that we will occupy your building. The freedom of space activities therefore explicitly means that you can build stations on the Moon. You can even take the appropriate precautions, as I said earlier. You have to let others in, and just because you`re able to build a station on the moon doesn`t mean you own that part of the moon forever and ever. So if, at some point, you don`t continue to operate there and you don`t let it all fall apart, then there`s probably no consensus on that after a few years, but those are the kinds of rules that we need to develop.
But maybe after a few years, someone else can come in and say, well, it`s a ruin. It doesn`t really belong to anyone anymore. Botswana has long since renounced it. Now I have the right to build my own thing here. States Parties to this Convention shall have international responsibility for national activities on the Moon, whether carried out by governmental or non-governmental organizations, and for ensuring that national activities are carried out in accordance with the provisions of this Convention. States Parties shall ensure that non-governmental entities under their jurisdiction may carry out activities on the Moon only under the continued authority and supervision of the competent State Party. 1. States Parties shall take all feasible measures to protect human life and health on the Moon. To this end, they consider any person on the Moon to be an astronaut within the meaning of article V of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, and as a spacecraft personnel within the meaning of the Convention on the Rescue of Astronauts; The return of astronauts and the return of objects launched into space. 3. States Parties shall report to the other States Parties and to the Secretary-General on areas of the Moon of special scientific interest with a view to considering, without prejudice to the rights of other States Parties, the designation of such areas as international scientific protected areas for which special safeguards shall be agreed in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations.